Lysosome in cheese

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Did you know that the grated cheese contains egg lysosome?

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How many of you know what is this ingredient?

Lysozyme is found in large quantities in secretions such as tears, saliva and mucus in the cytoplasm of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), but the largest amount of lysozyme is found in egg white.

Lysozyme was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1921, while the scientist trying to prove that their nasal mucus has the ability to inhibit the growth of bacteria in culture. He realized that this was due to a protein in mucus that causes bacterial cell lysis. And so called protein, lysozyme. In a subsequent study, along with his collaborator, V.D. Allison, lysozyme detected in human blood serum, saliva, milk and other fluids.

Lysozyme is one of the most powerful natural antibacterial and antiviral compounds known to man. It was used in food and pharmaceutical products over three decades because it inhibits the growth of many pests naturally, grow and ensure food safety. It also stimulates the immune system.

Perfect natural alternative to synthetic preservatives for „Organic,” „Artizinal” and less processed foods, lysozyme, ultimately, helps stop multi-drug resistant germs because of overuse of antibiotics.

The most important source of lysozyme which can be extracted on an industrial scale is egg whites.

Reclame

Malic acid – info and usage

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Malic acid is an organic compound with the formula HO2CCH2CHOHCO2H. It is a dicarboxylic acid that is made by all living organisms, contributes to the pleasantly sour taste of fruits, and is used as a food additive. Malic acid has two stereoisomeric forms (L- and D-enantiomers), though only the L-isomer exists naturally. The salts and esters of malic acid are known as malates. The malate anion is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle.
Malic acid was first isolated from apple juice by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1785. Antoine Lavoisier in 1787 proposed the name acide malique which is derived from the Latin word for apple, mālum. Malic acid contributes to the sourness of green apples. It is present in grapes and in most wines with concentrations sometimes as high as 5 g/l. It confers a tart taste to wine, although the amount decreases with increasing fruit ripeness. The taste of malic acid is very clear and pure in rhubarb, a plant for which it is the primary flavor.
The process of malolactic fermentation converts malic acid to much milder lactic acid. Malic acid occurs naturally in all fruits and many vegetables, and is generated in fruit metabolism.
Malic acid, when added to food products, is denoted by E number E296. Malic acid is the source of extreme tartness in USA-produced confectionery, the so-called extreme candy. It is also used with or in place of the less sour citric acid in sour sweets. These sweets are sometimes labeled with a warning stating that excessive consumption can cause irritation of the mouth. It is approved for use as a food additive in the EU, USA and Australia and New Zealand (where it is listed by its INS number 296).
Malic acid provides 10 kJ/g of energy during digestion.
The pleasant, refreshing experience of biting into a juicy apple or cherry is partly caused by Malic acid.
Malic acid has:
• a clean, mellow, smooth, persistent sourness,
• flavour enhancement and blending abilities,
• a high solubility rate,
• lower hygroscopicity than Citric or Tartaric acids,
• a lower melting point than other acids for easier incorporation into molten confections,
• and good chelating properties with metal ions.
It forms:
• economical acidulant blends with other acids,
• more soluble calcium salts than Citric acid, and
• effective buffering mixtures.

According to Health Services at Columbia University, malic acid breaks down tooth enamel causing dental decomposition, which is irreversible.

APPLICATIONS
BEVERAGES
Carbonated Beverages
Adding Malic acid improves economies, especially in artificially sweetened products. Flavours are enhanced, allowing less flavour to be used, and the overall flavour profile is broader and more natural.

Non-carbonated Beverages
Malic acid is a preferred acidulant for still beverages (fruit drinks, nectars, iced-teas, sports drinks, calcium fortified juices), because it enhances fruit flavours, improves pH stability, and masks the aftertaste of some salts.
Powdered Mixes
In iced tea, sports drink or fruit soup dry mixes, Malic acid is preferred due to its rapid dissolution rate and flavour enhancement qualities. Since Malic acid provides more sourness than Citric acid, less acidulant is required and unit weight can be reduced.
Low Calorie Beverages
In beverages containing intense sweeteners, less Malic acid than Citric is required to achieve the desired sourness and flavour at a higher pH. Malic acid’s extended sourness masks sweetener aftertaste (see Taste Retention Chart) and its blending and fixative abilities give a balanced taste. In a study with 14-30 year olds, aspartame sweetened low-calorie soft drinks acidified with Malic acid were preferred over those with Citric acid.
To see our Taste Retention Chart please click here.
Ciders and Wines
For „alcoholic” apple ciders, Malic acid is added to maintain a consistent „sharp” taste. In wines, malolactic fermentation improves the flavour profile of the wine.
Acidified „Dairy” Products
• Whey-based protein beverages acidified with Malic acid have enhanced fruit flavour and less noticeable whey flavour.
• Fruit flavoured milk drinks made with fruit juice and acidified with Malic acid have improved flavour and palatability.
• Coagulated soy-milk acidified with Malic acid produces a yoghurt-like product.
Calcium Supplements and Calcium-fortified Beverages
In liquid calcium supplements, Malic acid adds a tart and fruity flavour while controlling the pH. In calcium-fortified beverages, using Malic acid in place of Citric acid prevents turbidity due to precipitated calcium citrate.
CONFECTIONERIES
Malic acid gives an appealing tartness to hard, soft, tabletted and sugarless candies as well as chewing gum. Blending multiple acids creates unique tasting confections. For example, to prolong the sourness in candy or chewing gum, Citric acid is used for an initial sour boost, Malic acid for a lingering sourness, and Fumaric acid to sustain the tartness even longer. Malic acid’s high solubility allows it be blended with cooled confections. Adding acids at the end of the candy making process minimizes sugar inversion.
Hard Candy
Malic acid boosts sourness intensity and enhances fruit flavours. It has a lower melting point than other food acids – this means that it can be incorporated into the molten hard candy without added water – shelf life is increased since the initial moisture level in the hard candy is lower.
Soft Candy
In agar, gelatin or pectin-based candies such as jellies and gummies, Malic acid is used to achieve a natural fruit flavour profile, proper gelling and good product clarity.
Sugarless Confections
Malic acid is preferred over Citric acid in this application because it enhances flavour, especially fruit flavours, and boosts sweetness. Blending the sorbitol solution during the heating process is made easier by adding Malic acid.
Chewing Gum
Organic food acids combined with saccharin improve saliva stimulation in chewing gum. Malic acid is preferred due to its flavour enhancement properties. Using blends of acids with different partition coefficients results in a sequential release of acid – this creates prolonged juiciness and flavour during chewing.
FRUIT PREPARATIONS AND PRESERVES
Malic acid enhances fruit flavours and creates a more natural flavour profile in jams, jellies, and fruit preparations. Malic acid stabilizes pH to control pectin gel texture due to its strong buffering capacity at the pHs used for pectin gels. Fruit preparations are acidified with Malic acid so that the fruit flavour stays strong, even when the fruit preparation is used in dairy products, frozen desserts or baked goods.
DESSERTS
• Fruit preparations for frozen desserts show enhanced fruit flavour when Malic acid is included.
• Malic acid is an economical fruit flavour enhancer in sherbets and water ices.
• In gelled desserts, Malic acid enhances fruit flavours and helps stabilize pH to control gel texture.
BAKERY PRODUCTS
Bakery products with fruit fillings (cookies, snack bars, pies, and cakes) have a stronger and more naturally balanced fruit flavour when the fruit filling includes Malic acid. Pectin gel texture is more consistent due to Malic acid’s buffering capacity.
MEDICAL AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS
In throat lozenges, cough syrups, and effervescent powdered preparations, Malic acid enhances fruit flavour and can diminish the flavour impact of active components. As Malic acid stimulates saliva flow, it can be used in tooth-cleaning preparations and mouthwashes. Germicidal compounds are used in combination with Malic acid in soaps, mouthwashes, and toothpaste.
Acid-Based Facial Products
Malic acid, an alpha hydroxy fruit acid, can be used in skin care products to rejuvenate and improve skin conditions.

Bromelain

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Bromelain is an extract derived from the stems of pineapples, although it exists in all parts of the fresh plant and fruit, which has many uses. The extract has a history of folk and modern medicinal use. As a supplement it is thought to have anti-inflammatory effects. Bromelain also contains chemicals that, according to laboratory research, might interfere with the growth of tumor cells and slow blood clotting. As a culinary ingredient it is used primarily as a tenderizer.

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The term „bromelain” may refer to either of two protease enzymes extracted from the plants of the family, Bromeliaceae, or it may refer to a combination of those enzymes along with other compounds produced in an extract.

Although it exists in all parts of the fresh plant and fruit, which has many uses. The extract has a history of folk and modern medicinal use. 

Bromelain is an extract derived from the stems of pineapples, although it exists in all parts of the fresh plant and fruit, which has many uses. The extract has a history of folk and modern medicinal use. As a supplement it is thought to have anti-inflammatory effects. Bromelain also contains chemicals that, according to laboratory research, might interfere with the growth of tumor cells and slow blood clotting. As a culinary ingredient it is used primarily as a tenderizer.
The term „bromelain” may refer to either of two protease enzymes extracted from the plants of the family, Bromeliaceae, or it may refer to a combination of those enzymes along with other compounds produced in an extract.

Bromelain extract is a mixture of protein-digesting enzymes—called proteolytic enzymes or proteases—and several other substances in smaller quantities. The proteolytic enzymes are referred to as sulfhydryl proteases, since a free sulfhydryl group of a cysteine side-chain is required for function.

Bromelain is used for reducing swelling (inflammation), especially of the nose and sinuses, after surgery or injury. It is also used for hay fever, treating a bowel condition that includes swelling and ulcers (ulcerative colitis), removing dead and damaged tissue after a burn (debridement), preventing the collection of water in the lung (pulmonary edema), relaxing muscles, stimulating muscle contractions, slowing clotting, improving the absorption of antibiotics, preventing cancer, shortening labor, and helping the body get rid of fat.

Agar agar – a gelatin substitute

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Agar Agar is a vegetarian gelatin substitute produced from a variety of seaweed vegetation. It is sold in health food stores in both flake and powder varieties, and can be used in a variety of dairy-free and vegan recipes as a stabilizing and thickening agent.

To use agar flakes in recipes, traditional instructions call for 1 T. of agar flakes to every cup of water or juice, but these measurements may vary from recipe to recipe. Like animal-based gelatin, the agar is dissolved in the liquid in a small saucepan over medium-high heat, brought to a boil and then simmered until slightly thickened, about 5-7 minutes. It is then chilled in the refrigerator until set and typically enjoyed cold.

Since gelatin is made from animal tissue, many vegetarians rely upon this seaweed derivative as a substitute.  Like ordinary gelatin, agar is flavorless and becomes gelatinous when it’s dissolved in water, heated, and then cooled.   Agar, though, gels more firmly than gelatin, and it sets and melts at a higher temperature–it can even set at room temperature.  Agar, like gelatin, is full of protein (though incomplete), but it also contains the rich array of minerals one would expect from seaweed.   To use agar, just soak it in the liquid for about 15 minutes, bring it to a gentle boil, then simmer while stirring until it’s completely dissolved.  The liquid will gel as it cools.  Acids weakens agar’s gelling power, so if you’re firming an acidic liquid, use more.  Like gelatin, agar will break down if exposed to the enzymes of certain raw fruits, like kiwi fruit, papayas, pineapple, peaches, mangos, guavas, and figs.  Cooking these fruits, though, destroys the enzymes.  If you plan to add any of these fruits to a gelatin salad, it’s a good idea to buy them in cans, since all canned fruit is pre-cooked.   Agar comes in flakes, powder, or bars.Image